In the 2010 census were of 40,091,359 inhabitants. Argentina ranks third in South America in total population and 33rd globally. As with other areas of new settlement such as Canada, Australia, and the United States, Argentina is considered a country of immigrants. Most Argentines are descended from colonial-era settlers, and 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe. Argentina was second only to the US in the numbers of European immigrants received. The majority of these European immigrants came from Italy and Spain. Recent Illegal immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia and Paraguay, with smaller numbers from Peru, Ecuador and Romania.
The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion but also requires the government to support Roman Catholicism economically. Until 1994 the President and Vice President had to be Roman Catholic, though there were no such restrictions on other government officials.
The official language of Argentina is Spanish, usually called castellano (Castilian) by Argentines. The most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, whose speakers are primarily located in the Río de la Plata basin.
Argentina is highly urbanized. The ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population, and fewer than one in ten live in rural areas.
Argentine culture has significant European influences. Buenos Aires, its cultural capital, is largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of European styles in architecture. The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance. Finally, indigenous American traditions have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu.